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Conflict history: Angola

Head of State: President Jose Eduardo Dos Santos, 1979- (elected 1992)

Three guerrilla groups, Movimento Popular de Libertação de Angola (MPLA - Popular Movement for Angolan Liberation), União Nacional para a Independência Total de Angola (UNITA - National Union for Full Independence for Angola) and Frente Nacional para a Libertacao de Angola (FNLA - National Front for Angolan Liberation) waged war against Portuguese colonialism 1960s and 1970s.

Following fall of Caetano regime in Portugal and subsequent collapse of Portuguese empire 1974, Angola entered nearly three decades of on-off civil war between Cuban-supported Marxist-Leninist MPLA and UNITA-FNLA forces backed by apartheid South Africa and U.S. Estimated 1.5 million killed. MPLA victory 1976 led to installation of Agostinho Neto as president - replaced by Dos Santos 1979. 1974-1988, Angola’s war driven by Cold War regional and global geopolitics, involving South African and Cuban troops. Ceasefire signed between MPLA and UNITA 1989. Foreign troops withdrew 1991 under UN monitoring (UNAVEM I 1988-1991).

Angola held first multi-party elections 1992, which MPLA won narrowly. Results rejected by UNITA, who rearmed and resumed war, leading to growing international alienation of UNITA and imposition of UN sanctions. Angola’s civil war after 1991 increasingly fuelled by internal politics of power, diamonds and promise of oil. 1994 Lusaka Protocol provided for integration of UNITA insurgents into government armed forces, but UNITA failed to keep terms of accord, leading to further UN sanctions against it. Full-scale war resumed late 1998, despite presence of UN peacekeeping mission (UNAVEM II) from 1995 - replaced with MONUA in 1997 - and installation of National unity government April 1997.

April 2002, ceasefire took hold after death of UNITA leader Jonas Savimbi, and demobilisation of UNITA forces. Government victory enabled it to assert central power in oil-rich Cabinda province, carrying out offensive against separatist Frente de Libertação do Estado de Cabinda (FLEC - Front for the Liberation of the State of Cabinda) rebels 2002. Divided from rest of country by section of Cabindan separatists claimed independence from Angola after Angolan independence saying Cabinda only became administrative part of Portuguese Angola after 1954.

Angolan elections scheduled for 2006, following recommendations by Council of the Republic, influential advisory body to President Jose Eduardo dos Santos, that they be conducted “no later than September 2006.” Unfinished re-integration agenda, violence, including killings of political opponents, media restrictions and violation of human rights hamper return to peace and democracy.

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Velký díky a taky velká omluva patří Deltě Trutnov a obchodu,hlavně za jejich články o deltě a zbraních, takže díky moc..